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Tất tần tật về GIỚI TỪ - Preposition

Tất tần tật về GIỚI TỪ - Preposition

Giới từ trong tiếng Anh xuất hiện ở hầu hết các câu nói tiếng Anh, bất kể là tiếng Anh giao tiếp hay học thuật.

Advanced Grammar
GIỚI TỪ: Giới từ là từ loại chỉ sự liên quan giữa các từ loại trong cụm từ, trong câu. Những từ thường đi sau giới từ là tân ngữ (Object), Verb + ing, Cụm danh từ ...
1. Giới từ chỉ thời gian
a) Prior to
Prior to carrying out the experiment, Milgram explained his idea to a group of 39
psychiatrists
b) At the end of
At the end of the discussion, at the end of the exam
c) at the point of
at the point of leaving, at the point of collapse
d) in the act of
I caught him at the act of reading my private letters.
2. Giới từ chỉ địa điểm, phương hướng
a) In the face of
In the face of great hardship, she managed to keep her sense of humor
3. Giới từ chỉ cách thức, phương pháp
a) By means of
We express our thoughts by means of words
b) By virtue of
Though she isn’t British by birth, she’s a British citizen by virtue of her marriage
to an English man.
4. Giới từ chỉ mục đích
a) For fear of
She left an hour early for fear of missing her train
I never carry a large sum of money with me for fear of losing it
b) For the purpose of
Did you come to London for the purpose of seeing your family or for business
purpose?
c) For the sake of
He’s going to live by the coast for the sake of his health
d) With a view to
Dung beetles were initially introduced in the late1960s with a view to
controlling buffalo flies.
5. Giới từ chỉ nguyên nhân
a) Due to
Joe’s application to the University was not accepted due to his failing English
b) Owing to
Owing to a prior engagement, the chairman cannot come tonight.
c) Thanks to
Thanks to technological advances such as lightweight components,
manufactured goods themselves have tended to become lighter and less bulky.
It was also at this time that the avant-garde film first achieved commercial
success, this time thanks almost exclusively to the French and the occasional
German film.
d) In view of
In view of the express, in view of the fact
In the view of his youth, the police have decided to not to press charges.
e) On account of
On account of the weather, we had to cancel the projected outing .
f) As a result of
World food output her head has risen by 4 percent between the 1970s and
1980s mainly as a result of increases in yields from land already in cultivation.
6. Giới từ chỉ quan hệ loại trừ
a) Bar ( barring)
All was over, bar the formal recording of the votes.
b) Apart from
I cant think of anything I need, apart from a car.
c) Aside from
Aside from the Joneses, I don’t know anybody in the village.
d) Short of
Short of President himself, probably no one could have put the American case
more persuasively.
e) With the exception of
I like all my studies with the exception of arithmetic.
7. Giới từ chỉ sự liên quan
a) Concerning
I am writing concerning the position of Assistant Office manager that I am due to
begin next Monday.
b) Regarding
The government changed the rules regarding the university entrance exam.
Regarding, wages, a babysitter in a developed country may earn $2 per hour.
c) Respecting
Legislation respecting property
Problems respecting air pollution in cities
d) Touching
He asked many question touching my house and school.
e) As regards,
He was in a thoroughly sound state as regards intellect.
f) As for
As for the Olympics, riots are uncommon
g) As to
There was no agreement as to the best way of bringing some order to the chaos
of English spelling.
h) In the matter of
A deficiency in the matter of weapons
i) With regard to
Sorghum is the least demanding grain with regard to water, soils and climates.
j) With respect to
With respect to your request, we regret that are unable to assist you in the
matter.
8. Giới từ chỉ sự căn cứ, đối chiếu
a) Under
Under the agreement, under the law
b) According to
The work has been carried out according to your instructions.
c) In accordance with
Education is carried out in accordance with the principles of the school.
d) In conformity with
In conformity with our rules and regulation, I am calling a meeting of our
organization.
e) In terms of
These events are not to be explained in terms of what happened last week.
f) In the light of
I wanted to hold the meeting today, but in the light of the changed circumstances
it had better be postponed.